The 10 Biggest Revelations From Edward Snowden's Leaks

Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden poses for a photo during an interview in an undisclosed location in December 2013 in Moscow, Russia.
Image: Barton Gellman/Getty Images

One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.

At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian won a Pulitzer Prize for reporting based on Snowden's information.

n. 企业,事业,谋划,进取心

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2012中国创新人物奖中国互联网行业常常被描述成冒牌王国,尤其是对在中国被禁的那些公司的仿冒。中国搜索巨头百度(Baidu Inc.)的网站外观很像谷歌。腾讯的旗舰产品、即时信息服务QQ于1999年以OICQ的名字发布,与当时流行的即时信息服务ICQ功能相似。新浪(Sina Corp.)广受欢迎的微博总是被西方媒体说成“与推特(Twitter)类似”。
Spotify, the music streaming service, plans to list existing private shares directly on the New York Stock Exchange as soon as the fourth quarter rather than doing a formal IPO, while other large, well-known tech companies for now were seen as more likely prospects for 2018, bankers said.
A study published in the journal "Clinical Psychological Science" in 2012 showcased the power of self-imagination, which showed the technique could help people with impaired memories, as well as individuals with no memory problems. As with other studies of human memory, the scientists asked participants to remember a list of words related to certain personality traits. The participants were then asked to use a specific strategy to help them recall the words. For example, some participants were asked to remember one personality trait by thinking of a second word that rhymed with the trait. Other participants were asked to remember the definition of the trait while others were asked to engage in "self-referential processing" where they would think about the trait in a personal, self-reflective way.
截至德葡之战,本届世界杯已经结束了12场比赛,场均进球3.42个。预计尼日利亚对阵伊朗的比赛进球数将拉低这个统计,不过,只要本场比赛或随后的美加之战能够斩获至少一球,世界杯就会迎来场均进球三粒的第六天。历史上,平均达到如此进球数的还要追溯到1958年瑞典世界杯,也是贝利横空出世的一届。其中,12支球队在仅仅35场比赛中,场均进球3.6个。

1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records

The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 建材家具商难言之痛:“7日网购后悔权” in America.

This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.

The uproar caused by this first story has led President Barack Obama to endorse a reform to the program, and the House of Representatives to pass the first law that tries to change it.

2. PRISM

The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.

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PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.

PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.

3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world

最近雇主已经加大招聘力度。劳工部数据显示,10月份新增就业岗位17.1万个,今年以来平均每个月增加15.7万个。这个速度高于去年,并且是2006年以来最强劲的就业增长。[qh]
单词fatigue 联想记忆:
亚太地区票房增长了13%,是推动国际票房增长的主力,而中国贡献了整个亚太地区近半票房。
The rise of populism, even in countries such as the US and UK where plenty of people are in work, has made politicians realise that the quality of jobs is as important as their quantity.

Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.

4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders

U.S. President Barack Obama, right, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel are seated together at a G7 dinner in Brussels, on June 4. Their relationship has been tense since reports revealed that the NSA tapped Merkel's phone.

6. statuesque / a . 高大匀称的,体态优美的。
科技厌恶症。
Beijing has responded with increasing rancour against Seoul’s decision to deploy Thaad, the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence platform. While South Korea insists the system is for defending itself against North Korean missiles, China fears the technology will allow an ally of the US to spy on its military developments.

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美国在2014年的新增工作岗位被设定为300万个—这是自1999年以来最大的增加量。新增工作岗位的增加预计在2015年将会对得到持续,这将确保消费者支出得到持续的动力;同时汽油价格的下降也将为家庭支出节省额外的开支用以购买其他的商品和服务。详见:汽油价格在2014年下降美国将会节省140亿美元开支。
5. Women keep rising.

The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.

Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.

5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything

XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.

6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security

Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 市场信心得支撑量价微升 3月北京楼市初现暖意 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.

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n. 火
美联储上个月公布了今年放缓购债步伐的时间表。美联储计划在每一次政策会议上将购债规模减少100亿美元,直到今年年底不再进行购债。自从2012年末以来,美联储每个月都买入850亿美元美国国债和住房抵押贷款支持证券。
As the calendar flips to December it’s not too early to think about the inevitability of tanking. Who should do it, who should wait, and who shouldn’t ever consider it. Flanns and Zillz discuss.

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According to the annual Global Trade Protection Report, companies in the US launched 43 anti-dumping cases in 2015 and a further 22 anti-subsidy investigations aimed at securing countervailing duties. The US took the lead in both areas, overtaking India and Brazil, which launched the most cases in 2014 and 2013.
工作经历
他称:“有色钻石的市场门槛设置得非常高,因为它们实在太稀有了。”
西蒙接受本刊采访时说:“聘用老兵是我们做出的最好的决定之一。我们在阵亡将士纪念日推出了‘欢迎回家’计划,至今我们已经聘用了超过2.6万名老兵,让我们倍感骄傲。老兵在面对压力时表现一贯优秀,而且有服务热情,这些因素让我们很容易兑现聘用老兵、学习老兵和支持老兵的承诺。”
“它说明人们看重个人经验,胜过其他可用信息,”库迪斯表示。人们离一个重要事件的中心越远,此事对他们的风险胃口影响就越小。
或许你会认为这个60%并不起眼,但它是很重要的一步,因为在2003年,同性婚姻在美国的任何地方都是不合法的。
分析师们表示,未来几个月整体进口数据可能开始好转,因为大宗商品价格下跌在2014年底尤为显著,这将意味着按价值计算的中国进口同比降幅较小。
项目管理类
But the temperature of 1998 is now being surpassed every four or five years, and 2014 was the first time that happened without a significant El Ni?o. Gavin A. Schmidt, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in Manhattan, said the next strong El Ni?o would probably rout all temperature records.

7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed

The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.

Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.

tempor时间+ary表形容词,“…的”→短暂的
The paper quoted a number of students from the incoming class, who had a range of responses, including two who said it was the right approach to withdraw the offers. "I do not know how those offensive images could be defended," one student said.
201012/119869.shtml重点单词
明星们的私家飞机刚停稳,“老爹身材”一词便在互联网上走红。男性微胖的身材成为潮流,荧幕上不少这样的例子。法新社(AFP)Deborah Cole(黛博拉?科尔)写道:“杰拉尔?德帕迪约(Gerard Depardieu)在《爱之谷》中的形象便是“大汗淋漓、气喘吁吁地打着赤膊”, 华金?菲尼克斯 (Joaquin Phoenix)在 伍迪?艾伦(Woody Allen)的新片《非理性的人》(Irrational Man)中也露出了他那胖胖的肚子。科林?法瑞尔(Colin Farrell)出席《龙虾》(The Lobster)的首映红毯时,看起来如往常一般衣冠楚楚,然而在剧中他却大腹便便。为了给荒诞主义者欧格斯?兰斯莫斯(Yorgos Lanthimos)的黑色喜剧中的孤独主角增肥,法瑞尔大量进食高热量食品,其中包括融化了的冰淇淋。他告诉《好莱坞报道》(Hollywood Reporter),“在早晨10点享用2个芝士汉堡、薯条和可乐可不那么有趣,”他补充道,“不过我喜欢芝士汉堡。”
Jules Pieri

8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links

When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.

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This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."

9. NSA collects text messages

It's not just about Internet data though. The NSA, following its unofficial motto of "collecting it all," intercepts 200 million text messages every day worldwide through a program called Dishfire.

一个问题接着一个问题,从伊朗制裁到从阿富汗撤军,他的位置和政府态度之间的差别不大,但罗姆尼坚持他将更有效地加强美国的力量。
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Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.

10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries

The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.

The Bahamas was revealed by The Intercept, Greenwald's new website, while the second was revealed by WikiLeaks, which protested The Intercept's decision to withhold the second country's name.

今年最佳的季中交易早已发生了:

Bonus: Edward Snowden's first in-person interview with an American news outlet

(H/T to the site Free Snowden, which has an extensive and detailed list of all the NSA revelations.)